Parent-Child Relationship

Family and parenting variables are of great importance to the healthy social, emotional and cognitive development of a child. A solid parent-child relationship is the foundation from which a child learns and has been shown to influence academic outcomes, language development, readiness to learn, self-esteem, social competence and loneliness. We assess this relationship from several perspectives:


  • Attachment: The affective, cognitive and behavioral relationship that results in feelings of closeness, empathy and understanding on the part of the parent for the child and ultimately how well the parent can respond to the child’s needs.
  • Communication: The quality of information exchanged between the parent and child, as well as the parent’s listening skills that promote a trusting relationship.
  • Discipline practices: The ability of a parent to “teach” their child how to manage emotions and behavior, consistently and appropriately apply consequences in response to their child’s misbehavior, along with imparting a belief that adherence to rules is desirable for the child’s own growth and development.
  • Involvement: The extent to which the parent and child participate together in a variety of common activities, along with the parent’s knowledge of the child’s activities.
  • Parenting confidence: The comfort, control and confidence of the parent when actively involved in the parenting process and when making parenting decisions.
  • Relational frustration: The parent’s level of stress or distress in relating to and controlling the behavior and affect of the child, along with the tendency to overreact and become frustrated in common parenting situations.
  • Isolation: The parent’s degree of social support.
  • Health: The parent’s health and how this contributes to overall parenting stress.
  • Role restriction: The parent’s sense of limited freedom and constrained personal identity as a result of the parenting role.
  • Spouse/parenting partner relationship: The parent’s perception of emotional and physical support from his/her parenting partner.

Other Types of Pediatric Assessments